Morningstar category definitions

Large cap: Large-blend portfolios are fairly representative of the overall US stock market in size, growth rates and price. Stocks in the top 70% of the capitalization of the US equity market are defined as large cap. The blend style is assigned to portfolios where neither growth nor value characteristics predominate. These portfolios tend to invest across the spectrum of US industries, and owing to their broad exposure, the portfolios’ returns are often similar to those of the S&P 500 Index.

Mid cap: The typical mid-cap blend portfolio invests in U.S. stocks of various sizes and styles, giving it a middle-of-the-road profile. Most shy away from high-priced growth stocks but aren’t so price-conscious that they land in value territory. The U.S. mid-cap range for market capitalization typically falls between $1 billion and $8 billion and represents 20% of the total capitalization of the U.S. equity market. The blend style is assigned to portfolios where neither growth nor value characteristics predominate.

Small cap: Favor U.S. firms at the smaller end of the market-capitalization range. Some aim to own an array of value and growth stocks while others employ a discipline that leads to holdings with valuations and growth rates close to the small-cap averages. Stocks in the bottom 10% of the capitalization of the U.S. equity market are defined as small cap. The blend style is assigned to portfolios where neither growth nor value characteristics predominate.

Developed market ex-U.S equity: Invest in a variety of big international stocks. Most of these portfolios divide their assets among a dozen or more developed markets, including Japan, Britain, France, and Germany. These portfolios primarily invest in stocks that have market caps in the top 70% of each economically integrated market (such as Europe or Asia ex-Japan). The blend style is assigned to portfolios where neither growth nor value characteristics predominate. These portfolios typically will have less than 20% of assets invested in U.S. stocks.

Emerging market equity: Diversified emerging-markets portfolios tend to divide their assets among 20 or more nations, although they tend to focus on the emerging markets of Asia and Latin America rather than on those of the Middle East, Africa, or Europe. These portfolios invest predominantly in emerging market equities, but some funds also invest in both equities and fixed income investments from emerging markets.

Global large cap (World Stock): invest in a variety of international stocks that are larger. Global portfolios have few geographical limitations. It is common for these portfolios to invest the majority of their assets in developed markets, with the remainder divided among the globe’s smaller markets. These portfolios typically have 20%-60% of assets in U.S. stocks.

Global small cap: invest in a variety of international stocks that are smaller. Global portfolios have few geographical limitations. It is common for these portfolios to invest the majority of their assets in developed markets, with the remainder divided among the globe’s smaller markets. These portfolios typically have 20%-60% of assets in U.S. stocks.

U.S. investment grade: Intermediate-term bond portfolios invest primarily in corporate and other investment-grade U.S. fixed-income issues and typically have durations of 3.5 to 6.0 years. These portfolios are less sensitive to interest rates, and therefore less volatile, than portfolios that have longer durations.

U.S. investment grade municipal: Muni national intermediate portfolios invest in bonds issued by various state and local governments to fund public projects. The income from these bonds is generally free from federal taxes. To lower risk, these portfolios spread their assets across many states and sectors. These portfolios have durations of 4.0 to 6.0 years (or average maturities of five to 12 years).

U.S. government: Intermediate-government portfolios have at least 90% of their bond holdings in bonds backed by the U.S. government or by government-linked agencies. This backing minimizes the credit risk of these portfolios, as the U.S. government is unlikely to default on its debt. These portfolios have durations typically between 3.5 and 6.0 years.

High yield: High-yield bond portfolios concentrate on lower-quality bonds, which are riskier than those of higher-quality companies. These portfolios generally offer higher yields than other types of portfolios, but they are also more vulnerable to economic and credit risk. These portfolios primarily invest in U.S. high-income debt securities where at least 65% or more of bond assets are not rated or are rated by a major agency such as Standard & Poor’s or Moody’s at the level of BB (considered speculative for taxable bonds) and below.

Domestic REITs: Real estate portfolios invest primarily in real estate investment trusts of various types. REITs are companies that develop and manage real estate properties. There are several different types of REITs, including apartment, factory-outlet, health-care, hotel, industrial, mortgage, office, and shopping center REITs. Some portfolios in this category also invest in real estate operating companies.

Global REITs: Global real estate portfolios invest primarily in non-U.S. real estate securities but may also invest in U.S. real estate securities. Securities that these portfolios purchase include: debt securities, equity securities, convertible securities, and securities issued by real estate investment trusts and REIT-like entities. Portfolios in this category also invest in real estate operating companies.

MLPs: Energy Limited Partnership funds invest a significant amount of their portfolio in energy master limited partnerships. These include but are not limited to limited partnerships specializing in midstream operations in the energy industry.

Commodities: Broad-basket portfolios can invest in a diversified basket of commodity goods including but not limited to grains, minerals, metals, livestock, cotton, oils, sugar, coffee, and cocoa. Investment can be made directly in physical assets or commodity-linked derivative instruments, such as commodity swap agreements.

Equity Hedge: Long-short portfolios hold sizeable stakes in both long and short positions in equities, exchange traded funds, and related derivatives. Some funds that fall into this category will shift their exposure to long and short positions depending on their macro outlook or the opportunities they uncover through bottom-up research. At least 75% of the assets are in equity securities or derivatives, and funds in the category will typically have beta values to relevant benchmarks of between 0.3 and 0.8 during a three-year period.

Macro: These funds offer investors exposure to several different alternative investment tactics. Funds in this category have a majority of their assets exposed to alternative strategies. An investor’s exposure to different tactics may change slightly over time in response to market movements. Funds in this category include both funds with static allocations to alternative strategies and funds tactically allocating among alternative strategies and asset classes. The gross short exposure is greater than 20%.

Relative Value: These funds offer investors exposure to several different alternative investment tactics. Funds in this category have a majority of their assets exposed to alternative strategies. An investor’s exposure to different tactics may change slightly over time in response to market movements. Funds in this category include both funds with static allocations to alternative strategies and funds tactically allocating among alternative strategies and asset classes. The gross short exposure is greater than 20%.

Event Driven: These funds offer investors exposure to several different alternative investment tactics. Funds in this category have a majority of their assets exposed to alternative strategies. An investor’s exposure to different tactics may change slightly over time in response to market movements. Funds in this category include both funds with static allocations to alternative strategies and funds tactically allocating among alternative strategies and asset classes. The gross short exposure is greater than 20%.

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