Line graph shows spread between 10-year and 1-year U.S. Treasury yields.
Y-axis: Spread (in basis points; bp); X-axis: 1978-2022.
In the six recessions shown (1980, 1981-1982, early 1990s, early 2000s, 2007-2009, and February 2020) spread generally widens.
1980—Spread widens from below -100 bp to about 225 bp.
1981-1982—Spread widens from about 50 bp to more than 250 bp.
Early 1990s—Spread widens from about 50 bp to about 200 bp.
Early 2000s—Spread widens from about 50 bp to about 175 bp.
December 2007-June 2009—Spread widens from about 75 bp to near 300 bp.
February-April 2020—Spread widens from about 8 bp to over 51 bp.
- in 1978 -1980 (with much volatility, spread narrows (falling from 121 bp to below -129 bp.
- In 1980 – 1985 the spread increases to more than 250 bp, with significant fluctuation.
- From 1985-1990 (above 250 bp to about 12 bp by the end of the decade)
- From 1990-1995 (near 12 bp to above 300 bp, declining to about 50 bp)
- 1995 – 2000 (about 50 bp, rising above 100 bp, then falling below 0 bp and ending at -25 bp by the end of the decade).
- 2000 – 2005 (-25 bp falling to -50 bp, then rising to a high above 209 bp, then falling to near 0 bp, and rising to about 100 bp by the end of the period)
- 2005 – 2010 (100 bp rising to about 183 bp, then falling to a low near 0 bp before recovering in the recession at 300 bp)
- 2010 – 2015 (Near 300 bp declining to a low below 150 bp, then rising to 200 bp)
- 2015-2020 (near 200 bp declining to roughly -26 bp), then
- increasing to about 81 bp by the end of the period)
- 2020-Current (near 81 bp, increasing to over 156 bp, then decreasing to near -10 bp by Q3 2022)
Sources: Bloomberg, and Wells Fargo Investment Institute. Monthly data from January 1, 1978 to September 30, 2022. For illustrative purposes only. Ten-Year Treasury Constant Maturity and the One-Year Constant Maturity Indexes are published by the Federal Reserve Board and are based on the average yield of a range of Treasury securities, all adjusted to the equivalent of a 10-year maturity and the equivalent of a one-year maturity. Shaded area represents time frame of a U.S. economic recession. Yields represent past performance and fluctuate with market conditions. Current yields may be higher or lower than those quoted above. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. 100 basis points equal 1%. Although Treasuries are considered free from credit risk they are subject to other types of risks. These risks include interest rate risk, which may cause the underlying value of the bond to fluctuate.
- Yields moved higher across the yield curve in the first half of 2022; however, the curve has been inverted since July as short-term rates climbed at a faster pace than intermediate- and long-term rates.
- An inverted yield curve has historically pointed to a slowdown in economic growth.